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Links found on this page - aluminium , acid sulfate soils , blending reagents , by-product impurities , CRAB

Chemicals , Reagents & By-Product Impurities

 

Chemicals

Aluminium

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Aluminium is commonly found in solution below pH 4.5 and is considered a product of Acid Sulphate Soils usually a product of dissolved alugonite and kaolin clays.

Aluminium Hydroxide

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Aluminium hydroxide is dissolved aluminums when treated with calcium hydroxide in alkaline reagent the products are called hydroxides.

Arsenic

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Arsenic is one of the few drinking water contaminants to be proven to cause cancer in humans.  Arsenic compounds exist through out the earth crust most often as

                                Arsenic sulfide - ASS.

                                Metal arsenates - lead arsenate - Pb HA5O4

                                Potassium arsenite - KHAO4

                                Potassium arsentite - KA5 OHA  O
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In water it is likely to be present as a arsentite with an oxidation state of 5, if the water is oxygenated in annoxic condition it will more likely be found as arsentite oxidation rate of 3.

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Arsenic is introduced into the water ways by the dissolving and breaking down of rocks and is pH related.  An increase in pH may increase the presence of dissolved arsenic in water.

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Arsenic sulfide is of interest to acid sulfate research.

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Arsenic is sometimes associated with coastal Acid Sulfate Soil sediments and has present a significant long term poisoning problem.  An example of this Stirling, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia.

Calcium Carbonate (CaCo)

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CaCo is very nearly the same weight as sulfuric acid.  Calcium carbonate is 100 while sulphuric acid is 98. 

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The alkaline/acid reaction is nearly 1:1 under laboratory conditions and in fact the amount of acid available in a system is quite often described as Calcium Carbonate equivalents, this does not necessarily mean that HSo4 is the only acid present, it means that it takes a certain amount of CaCo to neutralize a given amount of acid, however if HSo4 is the only acid present in mg p/l.

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This can be misleading depending on the efficiency, granular size and quality of the CaCo.

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In many cases outside of a laboratory efficiency of 10%-30% can be expected with field dosing which can leave you wondering about the laboratory calcium carbonate equivalents.

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Incidentally the calibrating medium in the laboratory is sodium hydroxide ph 14.

Calcium Limestone

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Calcium limestone is the product of once submerged oceans with coral reefs made from CaCo, Calcium Carbonate.

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The reefs are compressed by land fill and heat over millions of years to produce such things as limestone and in some cases become a metamorphic rock known as marble, these rocks when mined and crushed produce CaCo.

Calcium Oxide (CaO)

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Calcium Oxide is an extremely reactive neutralizing agent and is produced by burning CaCo.

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This drives off the hydrogen and carbon atoms leaving a fairly unstable product. 

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On re-combining with water a vigorous exothermic reaction will occur.

Chemical Spills

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In the event of accidental spillage of pH related chemicals such as acids and alkalines eg Na(OH) and HSo4.

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The CRAB can be used to provide accurate amounts of reagent to deal with the problem.

Cyanide

bulletCyanide is sometimes used for the floatation process and dissolving rock for the extraction of gold and copper and does present significant danger to the environment.

Hydrated Lime

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Hydrated Lime is stable compared to other oxidized products such as Calcium Carbonate rock and creates useful by-products, ie iron hydroxide.  Hydrated Lime is naturally forming substance as follows -

Roasting CaCo releases O leaving CaO - rehydrating CaO with HO gives you Calcium Hydroxide or Hydrated Lime.

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Hydrated Lime has a neutralizing factor of 12.2 and is relatively inexpensive in relation to its neutralizing efficiency.

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Hydrated Lime is calibrated easily with correct equipment, ie CRAB.

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Sulfuric Acid (HSo4)

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Sulfuric Acid is the main ingredient for discharge from oxidized sulfidic muds, eg iron monosulfide and iron pyrites.

 

 

 Reagents

Blending Reagents

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The ability of the CRAB to accurately blend reagents for a desired result.  CaCo, calcium carbonate to attach and reduce metal loads and Ca(OH), calcium hydroxide to quickly and efficiently deal with acidity.

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A useful product commonly known as 'slack lime' or burnt lime comes in two forms -

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1.  Calcium Hydroxide - pH neutralizing factor of 12.2

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2.  Calcium Oxide - pH neutralizing factor of 13.

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of the 2 Calcium Hydroxide is the more user friendly

Brickies Lime

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Brickies lime is a useful product commonly known as slack lime or burnt lime.

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This lime comes in two forms -

  1.              Calcium hydroxide - pH neutralizing factor of 12.2

  2.              Calcium Oxide - pH neutralizing factor of 13.

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Of the two Calcium Hydroxide is the more user friendly.

 

By-Product Impurities

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When referring to Acid Sulphate Soils and treatment with active dosing of CaCo or Ca(OH) may mean such products as

  1. Gypsum or Calcium sulfate.

  2. Aluminium Hydroxide.

  3. Ferrous Hydroxides.

  4. Combination of micro species of elements.

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Interestingly these hydroxides that are produced act as a mop for other heavy metals and are quite useful for this purpose in pH conditions above  5.4.

Dissolved Minerals

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Most dissolved minerals are pH related so therefore by manipulating pH dissolved metals at different pH levels.

Written without prejudice

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Last modified: 05/06/04

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